Fork Spoon Knife is the personal blog of Asha where she chronicles her journeys in food through stories, recipes and photographs. She can also be found doodling and sharing her experiences as below.



Mutton Biriyani - the Traditional and the Contemporary

Biriyani and Chops

As it edges close towards Christmas, the blogosphere is simply buzzing with ideas popping, from simple to simply elegant. The world is bursting with creativity.. from simple to elaborate.. from food to decorations...and everything in between. But, the common vein in it all is the love that goes into each creation making it special.

Well, I am not one to break tradition. So, today I share with you a dish that is served on special occasions in my country, Mutton Biriyani. A dish that takes some labor and quite a bit of love that you taste every bit of!

Mutton Biriyani in Bowl 2

Biriyani originated in Persia and was brought to India by travelling Iranian merchants. It is a flavored rice dish made with alternating layers of rice and meat. The meat is cooked separately in a thick sauce/curry and then arranged between layers of rice and the whole assembly is then cooked very slowly to infuse flavors throughout the dish.

Spices have always been precious and festivals are occasions to indulge and splurge. Accordingly, food on these special days is enhanced in flavor, aroma and richness by various spices and ingredients indigenous to the country like cinnamon, cloves, cardamom and Basmati rice and those introduced through the ancient spice routes such as saffron, dried fruits and nuts.

Mutton Biriyani

Although, every family makes its own version, the Iranian Dam Biriyani (dam: steamed) is the most flavorful of all. I share with you today my family's recipe for the traditional Mutton Biriyani. As would be expected, given our Persian origins, this is indeed an adaptation of the original dish.

Biriyani is an informal meal, typically eaten family style with the whole family gathered around a giant plate piled high with flavored rice and flavorful meat. That's a fantastic way to eat it, everyone digging in, laughing and enjoying the meal. But, I also wanted to share a way that the dish can be plated elegantly for a formal occasion.

Mutton Biriyani on Plate

For my fanciful interpretation I marinated lamb chops in the same spices that were used in the traditional biriyani. Placed resting on a circle of traditional biriyani and served with Salan, mutton curry sauce, and Lime and Mint Yogurt on the side. It's elegant and bursts with flavors that with bring back your history lessons, of ancient kingdoms and dynasties, but, in a good, pleasurable way! ;-)

For more fabulous Christmas meal ideas check out the latest issue of G2Kitchen. You'll also find my recipes for the Goan Pork Vindaloo and Christmas Fruit Cake in there. If you are craving more ethnic, you'll find more Indian recipes here.

Mutton Biriyani with Biriyani Spice Marinated Lamb Chops and Lime and Mint Yogurt
{serves 4}

Mutton Curry

For the marinade:
1 kg mutton, cubed into 2 inch pieces
2 teaspoon ground turmeric
2 teaspoon ground cumin
2 teaspoon ground coriander
2 tablespoon chili powder
3 teaspoon garam masala
¼ cup cream, or rich yogurt
Salt as needed

For the curry:
1 large red onion, finely diced
3 ripe tomatoes, finely diced
¼ cup grated pumpkin
5 whole cloves
5 whole peppercorns
1 stick of cinnamon
2 whole star anise
2 bay leaves
3 cardamom pods, split
3 cloves of garlic, minced
1 inch stick of ginger, minced
1 tsp ground turmeric
1 tsp chili powder
1 tsp ground cumin
1 tsp ground coriander
Salt as needed
4 tablespoons ghee, clarified butter
1 cup water

Mix together the marinade ingredients and coat the mutton with it and let it sit in the fridge for at least 4 hours, best overnight. In a heavy bottomed pan, roast the whole spices in ghee until the aromas are released. Add the onion and sauté until translucent. Add the ground spices and sauté for a couple of minutes. Add the meat and toss until browned. Now, add the tomato and pumpkin and cook for a few minutes. Add water.

At this point you can transfer the mixture to a pressure cooker and let it cook for six to seven whistles or cook on a low flame until the meat is really tender. Let the cooked curry rest for a few hours to allow the flavors to blend.
Meanwhile make the rice for the Biriyani.

For the rice:

3 Tablespoon ghee
4 whole peppercorns
4 whole cloves
1 stick of cinnamon
2 cardamom pods, split
3 bay leaves
3 cups Basmati rice
6 cups of water
Salt as needed

In an deep, heavy bottomed dish, sauté the whole spices in ghee over low heat until they release their aromas. Add the rice and toss for a couple of minutes. Add salt and water and mix well. Cover the dish and cook on medium heat until the rice is cooked, about 20 minutes.

For the garnish:

1/3 cup milk
1 teaspoon saffron
¼ cup cashews
2 Tablespoon dried raisins
½ onion, julienned: Fry the onions in oil until crispy brown and set aside
3 tablespoon pomegranate arils (optional)
Soak the saffron in hot milk for about 10 minutes until the color and flavor is released

To Assemble the Mutton Biriyani

In a large deep baking dish, spread a thin layer of the just the curry without any meat. This is to ensure that the rice doesn’t stick to the bottom. Arrange an even layer of rice over it. Pour a third of the saffron milk evenly over this layer. Pick out the mutton pieces from the curry and spread over the rice. Sprinkle a thin layer of the curry to cover the rice. Repeat to make another rice and meat layer using up all the mutton pieces. Top off with a thin rice layer. Pour the remaining saffron milk over this. Sprinkle the garnish evenly on top. Puree the remaining curry to make the Salan to be served on the side.

Bake covered in a preheated oven at 350 F (180 C) for 30 - 45 minutes to allow the rice to pick up flavor of the curry and spices. You can serve in the same dish or heaped onto a large platter. When serving, make sure to reach to all the layers. Biriyani is typically served with the salan on the side and a yogurt raita.

Mutton Biriyani in Bowl

Lime and Mint Yogurt

2 cups strained yogurt or Greek yogurt
2 tsp dried mint
Zest of 2 limes

Mix all ingredients together and refrigerate.

Lamb Chops

8 lamb rib chops, cleaned
1/2 tsp ground turmeric
1 tsp ground cumin
1 tsp ground coriander
½ tsp pepper
1 tsp of ground cloves, cinnamon, anise, cardamom seeds
1 tsp ground fresh ginger
1 tsp ground fresh garlic

Mix all the ingredients together. Toss the chops in the marinade and let rest for 4 hours. When ready, melt butter in a frying pan. Sauté the chops for 2 minutes on each side and transfer to an oven at 350 F (180 C) for 10 minutes.
Serve with helping of mutton biriyani with drizzled with salan and lime-mint yogurt on the side.


  1. What a splendid dish and presentation! So refined, flavorful and festive. East meets West with perfection.



  2. looks so flavourful,feel like digging in..

  3. I've been looking for a good salan recipe...I wonder if you could share yours?

    The biryani looks delectable!

  4. You did an incredible job with this dish. It's incredibly elegant and tempting!

  5. What a gorgeous dish! Great photos!

  6. Girl u know how to plate ur food! Love the top plated shot :-)
    My husband's SO gonna love this one! he's a big fan of mutton and the recipe sounds awesome!

  7. What a labor of love! My mom is a biryani fiend and makes so many great kinds. I on the other have not inherited that, and I often find it way to tedious a job. But the way u have presented this and the gorgeous flavors, makes me get off my butt ;) oh and pumpkin? that SO unique!

  8. I love your presentation of the dish! Looks so good! Your biriyani makes me remember "Lebanese frikkeh"... they maybe share few origins! ;)

  9. Asha, this sounds and looks great! exactly the kind of recipes I hope to find reading other people's blogs, as I love to learn about different cultures and food.
    Nice, vibrant pics and beautifully styled food!

  10. Mouthwatering biriyani Asha !
    I like the way you've styled it on the first photo: a contemporary look for a traditional dish.

  11. Your plating (and the actual plates) is stunning, my friend. And, as always, you've made a terrific dish that everyone can find something in.

    I can't wait to play around with this to do something vegetarian with it.

  12. I love that first image, really elegant plating. I like how you include a little history with your recipes, always interesting to read.

  13. Mmmm... biryani! I love biryani!! I've been trying to find a good (spicy) biryani recipe that's vegetarian. So far I've managed to make it using a spice mix from a local Indian store. If anyone has any biryani recipes, I'd love to have it!

    (There's a restaurant up in the Bay Area that does a spicy-ish biryani with cashews and raisins, and likely turmeric as it's quite yellow. Delish!!)

  14. You really know how to deck food with colors!Those dollops of curd with pomegrante seed and mint leaf is such a colorful your blog.Stylish n sauve! Mutton biryani is one of my childhood favs!Did the use of grated pumpkin a substitue for raw papaya for mutton tenderizing?

  15. delicious biryani and raita
    happy holidays

  16. Asha, I am salivating. Absolutely love the contemporary presentation. Being an Indian myself though, I have to say your traditional presentation makes me want to dive right in. Such a lovely, comforting meal to share with family and friends.

  17. This is a spectacular dish! I love the touch of festive red gems from the pomegranates. I'm really looking forward to trying this recipe! I've made biryani before but it does not count because it was from a pre-made paste. I can't wait to try these recipes!

  18. OMG this dish is sooo festive! I absolutely love it - especially with the pomegranate - they look like jewels - am glad you went traditional with this dish and yes, I can tell there is a lot of love that went into preparing it!

  19. I love biriyani, and absolutely adore your contemporary interpretation of it, such excellent flavors and spectacular presentation! Excellent!

  20. your beautiful plating and presentation makes biryiani look delicious to me again after eating it for almost everyday last month in all get togethers. =) love the POM addition!

  21. That is so gorgeous Asha!! It looks absolutely perfect for the holidays!

  22. SB: For the salan, I puree gravy of the mutton curry into a smooth sauce. You can serve it chunky. I just like the smooth creaminess :))

    Tanvi: Yes, the pumpkin plays the same role as papaya :)

  23. Love the styling in the first pic. It looks so contemporary still you have captured the ethnicity of the dish. Way to go girl.

  24. This is an incredibly beautiful post. Thank you for sharing this special dish both traditional and modern versions. Happy Holidays!

  25. wow your plating is fantastic. you've grown leaps and bounds even since i recently started following your blog. you're an inspiration. thanks =)

  26. Your photos just keep getting prettier and prettier, Asha! And this strangely enough is one dish I have wanted to make for a long time but it is just so daunting to me. Why? I will definitely use your recipe...

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  28. Terrific pictures!! Now your biryani makes me regret that I never bothered too much about the presentation in my mutton biryani post!! =)
    err...i gooffed up the vocabulary in my last comment!! tats y its been deleted


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